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 From:  Ron Rosson <ron dot rosson at gmail dot com>
 To:  <m0n0wall dash dev at lists dot m0n0 dot ch>
 Subject:  Re: [m0n0wall] The future
 Date:  Thu, 13 Oct 2005 08:26:52 -0500
I would like to see m0n0wall move to OpenBSD and use PF. We could also gain
from the AUTHPF service to allow dynamic changing of rules as well. There
are a lot of projects out there using OpenBSD on a CF for soekris like
devices but none of them have a polished look that m0n0 has.

My $.02

Ron Rosson
ron dot rosson at gmail dot com

> From: Manuel Kasper <mk at neon1 dot net>
> Date: Wed, 12 Oct 2005 16:06:22 +0200
> To: <m0n0wall dash dev at lists dot m0n0 dot ch>
> Cc: <m0n0wall at lists dot m0n0 dot ch>
> Subject: [m0n0wall] The future
> Dear m0n0wall enthusiasts,
> now that m0n0wall 1.2 is out and all (well, most) of the changes
> since 1.11 are conserved in a (hopefully) stable release, we can
> discuss what is going to become of m0n0wall in the future. I'm going
> to present my point of view on what m0n0wall is today and what it
> could become. Your (constructive) comments, suggestions and opinions
> are very welcome, and I expect they'll be numerous as well. Please
> post them to the m0n0wall-dev mailing list only (I'm just CC'ing this
> to the main list to draw people's attention to this discussion).
> First of all, I'd like to give a quick overview of m0n0wall as it
> exists today - an experiment I started in 2003 that now runs about
> 15,000 firewalls worldwide. m0n0wall is based on a FreeBSD 4.11
> system, stripped down to its bare minimum. To make it as reliable as
> possible and to allow the system to be unplugged at any time (just
> like most commercial firewall boxes), the root file system is a
> memory file system, loaded at boot time from an image. This is also
> what made the popular CD-ROM version possible. Instead of the usual
> /etc/rc.* shell scripts, m0n0wall uses PHP scripts that are
> interpreted by a PHP CGI binary used as a CLI. These scripts contain
> functions that configure various aspects of the system - interfaces,
> the firewall, services. The configuration for the whole system comes
> out of a single XML file, config.xml. It is parsed into a
> multi-dimensional array and then used directly by the functions that
> configure the system. They do this by translating certain elements of
> the configuration into configuration files for daemons (like dhcpd,
> dnsmasq, etc.) or by calling system tools that interact with the
> kernel (like ifconfig or ipf). So far, so good.
> m0n0wall also contains a web interface, called the webGUI, which is
> probably its most important feature. mini_httpd is used as the web
> server, and once again, PHP (in CGI mode) is used for the pages that
> the webGUI consists of. Just like the boot scripts, these pages parse
> and manipulate the configuration directly, and also write it back
> into XML as needed (i.e. when the user modifies the configuration).
> To enable most changes to be applied immediately (instead of having
> to reboot each time), the webGUI pages call the respective functions
> in the boot scripts directly. To prevent problems with parallel
> access, a very simple form of locking is used. Certain configuration
> options are mutually exclusive, and some depend on other options
> being enabled in order to work. It's each webGUI page's own
> responsibility to check that all prerequisites are met, but obviously
> due to the way the webGUI works, pages are not informed if any of the
> options they depend on change.
> Upon external events - most commonly when PPPoE, PPTP or DHCP
> indicate that the dynamic WAN IP address has changed - another PHP
> script is run to make the necessary adjustments.
> So far, this has worked remarkably well. However, with each new
> feature that was developed, it has become more obvious that things
> are too intertwined. The main reason why OpenVPN support was buggy
> and had to be removed was that it used optional interfaces in ways
> that weren't planned when the optional interface support was written.
> However, it is clear why the initial author of m0n0wall's OpenVPN
> support chose to use optional interfaces: otherwise, major parts of
> the firewall code and many webGUI pages would have had to be modified
> (keep in mind that the OpenVPN support was supposed to be a module).
> m0n0wall has grown "organically" without a specific plan, so this is
> a logical consequence.
> At this time, I believe that it wouldn't be wise to continue hacking
> new features into m0n0wall with its current architecture. I don't
> have a ready-made plan yet, but in my opinion the web interface and
> the configuration subsystem need to be separated. There's too much
> important logic in the webGUI right now. m0n0wall needs a core, a
> daemon, something that is always running in the background to
> coordinate configuration changes and external events. The webGUI
> should only display the data and send change requests to the core,
> and the core should handle all the "business logic". This would also
> open possibilities for alternate configuration methods (console,
> Windows application, etc.). It would also be nice if the core was
> highly modular, with services like DHCP, DynDNS, DNS forwarder, PPTP
> VPN etc. implemented as separate modules and only the essential stuff
> (like interface handling or firewall rule generation) in the core.
> I have thought about this in the past, but PHP doesn't lend itself
> well to that kind of application. The core could also benefit from an
> object-oriented approach, finally abstracting things like interfaces,
> so that new features like OpenVPN could be integrated without having
> to modify existing code everywhere. Java would be a possibility -
> there are now ways (GCJ, for example) to use its advantages without
> the usual extreme bloat. There may be other candidates - I don't know.
> For the web interface, I still think PHP is a good choice. We'd just
> need a standards based interface between the core and the webGUI.
> What do you think? Is it time to perform a major architectural
> overhaul on m0n0wall? Or would you rather continue with m0n0wall's
> current architecture, perhaps making small adjustments where
> necessary, and on the other hand spend more time rewriting code to
> get new features integrated?
> No matter how the web interface and configuration system are going to
> work, there's also another important question: which base operating
> system should be used in the future? FreeBSD 4.x is at the end of its
> lifespan. It has been a very good, reliable, fast and secure
> platform. However, its age has become evident with missing support
> for new hardware (wireless gear in particular). There are several
> options for an alternative, each with its advantages and
> disadvantages. It'll most likely have to be a Unix-style operating
> system - the three BSDs (FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD), its descendants
> (e.g. DragonFly) and Linux come to mind. FreeBSD 5.x has already been
> evaluated in 1.2b5-7 and found to be too slow in comparison with 4.x.
> FreeBSD 6 is currently being used by pfSense and is supposed to be
> better than 5.x. NetBSD hasn't been evaluated at all, but OpenBSD has
> been suggested by a few due to its emphasis on security. With all
> three BSDs, the choice of packet filter is between ipfilter and pf -
> with Linux, it would be something different altogether (iptables).
> One thing that is very important to me is that m0n0wall remains (at
> least) as clean and easy to configure as it is today. Users should
> not have to deal with or need to understand the underlying operating
> system (except where it's inevitable, like when assigning interfaces
> or debugging).
> Finally, something needs to be done about the development style as
> well. So far, I've coordinated all changes to m0n0wall and analyzed
> and tested most contributed patches. While I think this has resulted
> in a relatively high code quality, I'd like other talented people to
> get more involvement. Volunteers, step forward! One of the ways to
> enable this will be a common version control system for the code -
> either CVS or SVN.
> That's it for now - again, please post your comments, and be sure to
> let everybody know if you think you can and would like to help with
> one of the things I've mentioned. We can also start a new survey on
> m0n0.ch if it looks like it would help and we manage to agree on a
> set of questions.
> m0n0wall forever! ;)
> - Manuel
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